Compared with a heat engine, such as one used for thermal power generation, or a gasoline engine, a fuel cell is two to three times more efficient, friendlier to the environment, and by far stronger in natural disasters. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) in particular has the greatest impact on energy resource conservation and environmental conservation in the world. In order to be more widely used, however, the FCV should perform more efficiently, acquire more durability, and be lower in cost. To this end, the development of electrocatalysts, polymer electrolyte membranes, and optimal cell designs for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, are the most important issues. To ensure the most rapid research in these areas we provide a well-integrated R&D system and the most sophisticated equipment and facilities, unlike any other in the world. At present, we are striving to address these issues through making the most of the national fuel cell project, which is being pursued in collaboration between industry and academic institutes.